Student Group Scores and Score Gaps
Student Group Score Trends
Lower average U.S. history scores at eighth grade for most student groups compared to 2018
In 2022, average U.S. history scores for eighth-grade students were lower in comparison to 2018 for the following student groups:
- Black and Hispanic students, students of Two or More Races, and White students;
- male and female students;
- students eligible and not eligible for the National School Lunch Program;
- students whose parents did not finish high school, students whose parents graduated from high school, students whose parents had some education after high school, and students whose parents graduated from college;
- students attending public schools;
- students attending public, noncharter schools;
- students attending city and suburban schools;
- students attending schools in the Midwest, South, and West regions;
- students who were and were not identified as students with disabilities; and
- students who were not identified as English learners.
In comparison to 1994, average eighth-grade U.S. history scores were not significantly different for most reported student groups; scores in 2022 were lower for female students, students whose parents graduated from high school, and students whose parents had some education after high school.
See trends in average scores for selected student groups by clicking on the thumbnails within the drop-downs below. Scroll down the page to find out how percentages of student groups have changed over time.
The Type of School results below include data for public schools and Catholic schools (a subcategory of private schools) only for the years where the results were reportable. In 2022, results for private schools overall and Catholic schools did not meet the minimum participation rate guideline for reporting, and therefore are not included here. See more information about years with available data by type of school and other student demographic groups.
Figure Trend in eighth-grade NAEP U.S. history average scores, by selected student groups
A Closer Look at Student Group Performance
Dig deeper into the student group results
This section explores the results for one student group by other student characteristics. For example, in comparison to 2018, average U.S. history scores in 2022 for selected racial/ethnic student groups explored in the context of gender, school location, and National School Lunch Program (NSLP) eligibility showed that scores declined for the following student groups:
- Black, Hispanic, and White female students and Hispanic male students;
- Hispanic students attending city and suburban schools and White students attending city schools; and
- Black and Hispanic students who were eligible for NSLP and White students who were not eligible for NSLP.
Use the drop-down menus below to view how a student group performs in relation to another student group.
Figure Trend in eighth-grade NAEP U.S. history average scores for Black students, by gender
Score Gap Trends
No significant change in score gaps for any student group compared to 2018
In 2022, there were no significant changes in the average score differences in U.S. history between any two reported student groups compared to 2018.
Compared to 1994, the score difference between male and female students widened. In 2022, male students scored 4 points higher on average than their female peers, while there was no significant score difference between the two groups in 1994. In 2022, there were no significant changes in score differences for most other reported student groups in comparison to 1994.
Figure Trend in eighth-grade NAEP U.S. history average scores and score gaps, by gender
Group Population Percentages
Demographic changes in student populations
Compared to the previous assessment year in 2018, the percentages of eighth-grade students have changed for selected student groups. For example, the percentage of students of Two or More Races was higher in 2022 compared to 2018, as were the percentages of students who were identified as students with disabilities and students who were identified as English learners. In addition, the percentages of students who were not identified as students with disabilities and students who were not identified as English learners were both lower in 2022 compared to 2018.
Read more about changes in policy for reporting by race/ethnicity.
Figure Percentage distribution of students in eighth-grade NAEP U.S. history, by race/ethnicity and assessment year
|Year||American Indian/Alaska Native||Asian||Asian/Pacific Islander||Black||Hispanic||Native Hawaiian/Other Pacific Islander||Two or More Races||White|