**Students' Views and Student Performance:**

**Students' Views Across States and Districts:**

At the national level, more than one-quarter of grade 4 and 8 public school students in 2015 reported having more positive views of mathematics, reading, and science. For example, 50 percent of eighth-graders across the nation had more positive views of mathematics (i.e., they were in the *high* index score category for their views), 26 percent had more positive views of reading, and 28 percent had more positive views of science. Students' views also varied across states and jurisdictions and across large urban districts.^{7} For example, among states and jurisdictions, the range of public school students who expressed more positive views of science differed by 19 percentage points at grade 4 and by 9 percentage points at grade 8. Among large urban districts that participated in the 2015 NAEP Trial Urban District Assessments (TUDA), the percentage of students who expressed more positive views of mathematics varied by 16 percentage points at grade 4 and by 23 percentage points at grade 8. Across most states, jurisdictions, and districts, student performance differed by students' views—those with more positive views had higher NAEP scores.

**Students' Views Across School Types:**

Overall, the 2015 NAEP data suggest that students' interest in and enjoyment of mathematics, reading, and science vary by the type of school they attend (e.g., public school or Catholic school; charter school or other public school)^{8} in ways that differ by grade. While there were no statistically significant differences in positive views of reading and science among public school and Catholic school fourth-graders, at grades 8 and 12 lower percentages of public school students expressed having more positive views of these subjects (i.e., they were in the *high* index score category for their views) compared to Catholic school students. A higher percentage of charter school eighth-graders had more positive views of mathematics and reading compared to other public school students, but the percentages of charter and other public school students with positive views of these subjects were not statistically significantly different at grades 4 and 12.

**Students' Views and Gender:**

Overall, male and female students who took the 2015 NAEP assessments expressed preferences for different subjects. Across all grade levels, more male than female students reported that mathematics and science were their favorite subjects or expressed more positive views (i.e., they were in the *high* index score category for their views) of these subjects. On the other hand, more female than male students reported that reading was their favorite activity or expressed more positive views of reading.

**Students' Views and Socioeconomic Status:**

Results from the 2015 NAEP survey questionnaires suggested that students' interest in and enjoyment of mathematics, reading, and science vary across different socioeconomic backgrounds, as indicated by their national school lunch program (NSLP) eligibility.^{9} In 2015, a larger percentage of lower income (i.e., NSLP eligible) fourth-graders reported that mathematics was their favorite subject compared to middle-to-higher income (i.e., not NSLP eligible) students, while there was no statistically significant difference in students' more positive views of mathematics at grade 8. At grade 4, a smaller percentage of lower income students reported that reading was their favorite activity compared to middle-to-higher income students. Additionally, at grade 8, a smaller percentage of lower income students reported more positive views (i.e., they were in the *high* index score categories for their views) of reading compared to middle-to-higher income students. Finally, a larger percentage of lower income than middle-to-higher income fourth-graders reported that science was their favorite subject, while a smaller percentage of lower income eighth-graders reported having more positive views of science compared to middle-to-higher income students.

**Students' Views and Learning Opportunities:**

Across grades 4, 8, and 12, higher percentages of students who expressed more positive views of mathematics, reading, or science (e.g., students who were in the *high* index score category for their views) tended to report engaging in subject-related learning opportunities compared to students who expressed less positive views (e.g., students who were in the *low* index score category for their views). This pattern of results was consistent among both lower income (i.e., NSLP eligible) and middle-to-higher income (i.e., not NSLP eligible) fourth- and eighth-grade students in all subjects.^{9} This suggests that while there may be socioeconomic differences in students' interest and enjoyment and in their access to learning opportunities, both lower and middle-to-higher income students with more interest and enjoyment in a subject tend to engage in related opportunities when they are available to them.

**Trends in Students' Views:**

Across nearly all subjects and grades, students' more positive views of learning have been on the rise. At grades 4, 8, and 12, higher percentages of students had more positive views of mathematics and science (e.g., they reported that these were *always or almost always* their favorite subjects) in 2015 compared to 2009. With the exception of fourth-graders, higher percentages of students had more positive views of reading in 2015 compared to 2002. Increases in higher levels of interest and enjoyment over time also tended to vary by student performance levels. In many cases, increases in high levels of interest and enjoyment over time were seen among higher-performing students, but not among lower-performing students.

Overall, at grades 4, 8, and 12, students with more positive views of mathematics, reading, or science performed better on the corresponding 2015 NAEP assessment compared to students with less positive views of these subjects. Fourth-graders who reported that mathematics, reading, or science was their favorite subject or activity scored higher on the corresponding 2015 NAEP assessment compared to students who reported having less interest in and enjoyment of these subjects or activities. Grade 8 and 12 students in the

highindex score category for their views of mathematics, reading, or science also scored higher on the corresponding 2015 NAEP assessment compared to students in thelowindex score category. Note, these findings suggest that students' positive views of these subjects are associated with better performance, not that the former causes the latter.