National Student Group Scores and Score Gaps

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Student Group Score Trends

Scores lower on average for many student groups compared to 2019

While many student groups had lower average scores in 2022, the average score for fourth-grade Asian/Pacific Islander students, students of Two or More Races, students attending charter schools or schools in rural locations, students identified as students with disabilities , and students identified as English learners did not differ significantly from 2019. 

Across student groups, average fourth-grade reading scores in 2022 were lower for the following student groups:

  • American Indian/Alaska Native, Black, Hispanic and White students;
  • male and female students;
  • students eligible and not eligible for the National School Lunch Program ;
  • students attending public schools;
  • students attending public, noncharter schools;
  • students attending schools in city, suburban, and town locations;
  • students attending schools in the Northeast, Midwest, South, and West regions;
  • students who were not identified as students with disabilities; and
  • students who were not identified as English learners.

In comparison to 1992, however, average fourth-grade reading scores in 2022 were higher for Asian/Pacific Islander, Black, Hispanic, and White students.

See trends in average scores for selected student groups by clicking on the thumbnails within the drop-downs below. Scroll down the page to find out how percentages of student groups have changed over time.

The Type of School results below include data for public schools and Catholic schools (a subcategory of private schools). In 2022, results for private schools overall did not meet the minimum participation rate guideline for reporting, and therefore are not included here. See more information about years with available data by type of school and other student demographic groups.

Figure Trend in fourth-grade NAEP reading average scores, by selected student groups
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Score Gap Trends

Larger score gap between White and Asian/Pacific Islander students compared to 2019

In 2022, the average reading score for Asian/Pacific Islander students at grade 4 was 12 points higher than the average score for their White peers. This 12-point score gap was larger compared to the 7-point gap in 2019, as well as to the point 8-score difference in 1992. In 1992, however, White fourth-grade students had outperformed Asian/Pacific Islander students. There was no significant change in 2022 for the White–Black or White–Hispanic score gaps in comparison to 2019 and 1992.

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Figure Trend in fourth-grade NAEP reading average scores and score gaps, by race/ethnicity
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Scalescore0100120140160180200220240260280300320340500Assessment Year'92'94'98'00'02'03'05'07'09'11'13'15'17'19'22'22<  Drag to change focal years  >
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Significant difference within year
No significant difference within year
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Group Population Percentages

Demographic changes in student populations

Compared to the previous assessment year in 2019, the population of fourth-grade students has changed for a few student groups. For example, the percentage of students who were identified as students with disabilities was higher in 2022 compared to 2019, as was the percentage of students who were identified as English learners. In comparison to the first assessment year in 1992, the percentages of fourth-graders in various student groups have also changed in 2022. For example, the percentages of White and Black students were lower while the percentages of Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander students and students of Two or More Races were higher compared to 1992. Select a student group from the drop-down menu to view changes in the percentage distribution for that group over time.

Read more about changes in policy for reporting by race/ethnicity.

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Figure Percentage distribution of students in fourth-grade NAEP reading, by race/ethnicity and assessment year
YearAmerican Indian/​Alaska NativeAsianAsian/​Pacific IslanderBlackHispanicNative Hawaiian/​Other Pacific IslanderTwo or More RacesWhite
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Next page: National Achievement-Level Results