NAEP Report Card: 2022 NAEP Mathematics Assessment

Highlighted results at grades 4 and 8 for the nation, states, and districts

Largest score declines in NAEP mathematics at grades 4 and 8 since initial assessments in 1990

In 2022, the average fourth-grade mathematics score decreased by 5 points and was lower than all previous assessment years going back to 2005; the average score was one point higher compared to 2003. The average eighth-grade mathematics score decreased by 8 points compared to 2019 and was lower than all previous assessment years going back to 2003. In 2022, fourth- and eighth-grade mathematics scores declined for most states/jurisdictions as well as for most participating urban districts compared to 2019. Average scores are reported on NAEP mathematics scales at grades 4 and 8 that range from 0 to 500.

Figure Trend in fourth- and eighth-grade mathematics average scores
Line graph showing average score in NAEP mathematics over time for 4th and 8th grades. Data described below.
Accommodations not permitted
Accommodations permitted
*Significantly different (p < .05) from 2022.

Between January and March 2022, the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) mathematics assessment was administered to representative samples of fourth- and eighth-grade students in the nation. Results for the nation reflect the performance of students attending public schools, private schools, Bureau of Indian Education schools, and Department of Defense schools. Results are also available for the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and 26 participating districts. Students’ academic achievement during the COVID-19 pandemic is compared to pre-pandemic performance on the 2019 NAEP mathematics assessment as well as to previous mathematics assessments dating back to 1990.

This Report Card Highlights contains key findings from the 2022 mathematics assessment. See the NAEP Mathematics Report Card to explore the full set of student performance results and information about students’ learning experiences inside and outside of school.

Scroll to read details for each grade or select items in the table of contents.

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Grade 4Region, state, and district performance

Fourth-grade mathematics scores declined across all regions of the country and in 43 states/jurisdictions

Results for states/jurisdictions reflect the performance of students in public schools only and are reported along with the results for public school students in the nation.

Figure Change in average scores between 2019 and 2022 for fourth-grade public school students in NAEP mathematics, by state/jurisdiction
Display As
Between
2019
and
2022:
0
decreased
0
no significant change
0
increased
Nation
(public)
decreased
West
Midwest
Northeast
South
NOTE: DS = Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA), a federally operated nonpublic school system responsible for educating children of military families. See more about DoDEA.
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In 2022, average mathematics scores at fourth grade declined in all four census-defined regions of the country—Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. Scores were lower by 7, 3, 5, and 4 points, respectively, compared to 2019. Looking at state/jurisdiction performance for fourth-graders in public schools in 2022, average scores were lower in 43 states/jurisdictions and were not significantly different in 10 states/jurisdictions. This is the largest number of states/jurisdictions with score declines in fourth-grade mathematics going back to 2003. Among the states/jurisdictions with score declines, 13 scored lower than the national average score for public school students in 2022; 17 had average scores that were not different from the national public average; and 13 scored higher.

Explore detailed state average score results in the NAEP Mathematics Report Card

Larger proportion of fourth-grade students performed below NAEP Basic in mathematics in 43 states/jurisdictions

Figure Change in percentages of fourth-grade public school students performing below NAEP Basic in mathematics between 2019 and 2022, by state/jurisdiction
Change in percentage of students performing below NAEP Basic between 2019 and 2022
0
states/jurisdictions had a lower percentage
10
states/jurisdictions had no significant change
43
states/jurisdictions had a higher percentage

Across all states/jurisdictions in 2022, the percentage of fourth-graders performing below NAEP Basic ranged from 8 to 90 percent; the percentage was 26 percent nationally. In the 43 states/jurisdictions with larger proportions of students performing below NAEP Basic compared to 2019, percentage increases ranged from 3 to 16 percentage points; nationally, there was a 6 percentage point increase for public school students. There were no significant changes in the percentage of students performing below NAEP Basic in 10 states/jurisdictions since 2019.

Explore detailed state achievement-level results in the NAEP Mathematics Report Card

Fourth-grade mathematics scores declined in 23 of 26 participating urban districts; no significant score change in three districts

The Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) is intended to focus attention on urban education and measure educational progress within participating districts. Fourth-graders in 26 urban districts participated in the mathematics assessment in 2022. TUDA district results are compared to results of public school students in large cities with a population of 250,000 or more.

Figure Change in average scores between 2019 and 2022 for fourth-grade public school students in NAEP mathematics, by district/jurisdiction
Display As
Between
2019
and
2022:
0
decreased
0
no significant change
0
increased
AlbuquerqueAtlantaAustinBaltimore CityBostonCharlotte-MecklenburgChicagoClevelandDallasDetroitDistrict of Columbia (DCPS)Hillsborough County (FL)HoustonJefferson County (KY)Los AngelesMiami-DadeMilwaukeeNew York CityPhiladelphiaSan DiegoClark County (NV)DenverFort WorthGuilford County (NC)Shelby County (TN)Duval County (FL)
NOTE: DCPS = District of Columbia Public Schools.
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In 2022, average mathematics scores declined in 23 of 26 districts compared to 2019, with declines ranging from 4 to 15 points. The average score for large city schools declined 8 points compared to 2019. Among the 23 districts with score declines, 9 scored lower than the average for large city schools; 10 districts had average scores that were not significantly different from the large city average, and 4 scored higher.

Explore detailed district average score results in the NAEP Mathematics Report Card

Larger proportion of fourth-grade students performed below NAEP Basic in mathematics in 24 of 26 participating urban districts

Figure Change in percentages of fourth-grade public school students performing below NAEP Basic in mathematics between 2019 and 2022, by district/jurisdiction
Change in percentage of students performing below NAEP Basic between 2019 and 2022
0
districts had a lower percentage
2
districts had no significant change
24
districts had a higher percentage

Across all participating districts in 2022, the percentage of students performing below NAEP Basic ranged from 18 to 77 percent and the large city average was 36 percent. In the 24 districts with larger proportions of students performing below NAEP Basic compared to 2019, percentage increases ranged from 5 to 21 percentage points; the increase for large city schools was 10 percentage points. There were no significant changes for students performing below the NAEP Basic level in 2 districts compared to 2019.

Eighteen of the 23 districts with mathematics score declines between 2019 and 2022 had average scores that were within the NAEP Basic range in 2022. Five districts with declines scored below NAEP Basic; among these districts, four of them shifted the average scores from within the NAEP Basic range in 2019 to below NAEP Basic in 2022.

Explore detailed district achievement-level results in the NAEP Mathematics Report Card

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Grade 4Closer look at student performance

Mathematics scores decreased for lower-, middle-, and higher-performing fourth-graders

NAEP reports scores at five selected percentiles to show the progress made by lower- (10th and 25th percentiles), middle- (50th percentile), and higher- (75th and 90th percentiles) performing students.

Figure Changes in fourth-grade NAEP mathematics scores at five selected percentiles: 2019 and 2022
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In 2022, fourth-grade mathematics scores declined at all five selected percentiles for the first time since the initial mathematics assessment in 1990. The magnitude of score declines for lower-performing students at the 10th and 25th percentiles (7 and 6 points, respectively) were greater than the declines for higher-performing students at the 75th and 90th percentiles (3 and 2 points, respectively).

Across the states/jurisdictions at grade 4, score declines since 2019 for lower-performing students (10th and 25th percentiles) were more prevalent than score declines for higher-performing students (75th and 90th percentiles) in 2022. Among the 43 states/jurisdictions with score declines, scores decreased for lower-performing students in 30 states/jurisdictions while scores decreased for higher-performing students in 13 states/jurisdictions.

Explore detailed percentile results in the NAEP Mathematics Report Card

One-quarter of fourth-graders performed below NAEP Basic in mathematics; larger percentage compared to 2019

Figure Trend in fourth-grade NAEP mathematics achievement-level results
Display As
Baseline
Percent1009080706050403020100102030405060708090100YearBelowNAEP BasicNAEPBasicNAEPProficientNAEPAdvanced
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NOTE: NAEP achievement levels are to be used on a trial basis and should be interpreted and used with caution.

In 2022, twenty-five percent of fourth-graders performed below the NAEP Basic level, which was larger by 5 percentage points than in 2019. This percentage was larger than all previous assessments since 2003. Thirty-six percent of fourth-graders performed at or above NAEP Proficient in 2022, which was smaller by 5 percentage points lower compared to 2019.

Explore detailed mathematics achievement-level results in the NAEP Mathematics Report Card

Fourth-grade mathematics scores declined across most racial/ethnic groups; scores declined for male and female students

Figure Changes in fourth-grade NAEP mathematics scores between 2019 and 2022, by selected racial/ethnic groups
Display As
Average Score75th and 25th
Percentiles
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Legend
75th percentile
25th percentile
*Significantly different (p < .05) from 2022.

In 2022, average fourth-grade mathematics scores decreased for most student groups in comparison to 2019. For example, looking at racial/ethnic groups, scores declined for American Indian/Alaska native, Asian, Black, and Hispanic students, students of Two or More Races, and White students.

The score gaps between White students and their Black and Hispanic peers were larger in 2022 than in 2019. Greater score declines in mathematics from 2019 to 2022 for Black and Hispanic students contributed to a widening of the score gaps between these groups and their White peers. See detailed student score gap results in the mathematics report card.

Performance at the lower (25th) and higher (75th) percentiles provides insight into the score declines for selected student groups. Compared to 2019, scores in 2022 declined at the lower and higher percentiles for Black and Hispanic students, students of Two or More Races, and White students; scores declined at the lower percentile for American Indian/Alaska Native and Asian students.

Figure Changes in fourth-grade NAEP mathematics scores between 2019 and 2022, by gender
Display As
Average Score75th and 25th
Percentiles
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Legend
75th percentile
25th percentile
*Significantly different (p < .05) from 2022.

Mathematics scores declined for male and female fourth-graders. In addition, the gender gap widened in 2022. The 6-point score difference between male and female students in 2022 was larger than the 3-point score gap in 2019. This is largest gap going back to 1990. A greater score decline for female students in 2022 contributed to the widening of the gender gap. In 2022, scores declined for both male and female fourth-graders performing at the 25th and 75th percentiles in comparison to 2019.

Explore detailed student group score and score gap results in the NAEP Mathematics Report Card

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Grade 8Region, state, and district performance

Eighth-grade mathematics scores declined across all regions of the country and in 51 states/jurisdictions

Results for states/jurisdictions reflect the performance of students in public schools only and are reported along with the results for public school students in the nation.

Between
2019
and
2022:
0
decreased
0
no significant change
0
increased
Nation
(public)
decreased
West
Midwest
Northeast
South
NOTE: DS = Department of Defense Education Activity (DoDEA), a federally operated nonpublic school system responsible for educating children of military families. See more about DoDEA.
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In 2022, average mathematics scores at eighth grade declined in all four census-defined regions of the country—Northeast, Midwest, South, and West. Scores were lower by 9, 8, 8, and 6 points, respectively, compared to 2019. Looking at state/jurisdiction performance for eighth-graders in public schools, average scores were lower in 51 states/jurisdictions and not significantly different in 2. This is the largest number of states/jurisdictions with score declines in grade 8 mathematics going back to 2003. Among the states/jurisdictions with score declines, 18 scored lower than the national average score for public school students in 2022; 16 had average scores that were not significantly different from the national public average; and 17 scored higher.

Explore detailed state average score results in the NAEP Mathematics Report Card

Larger proportion of eighth-grade students performed below NAEP Basic in mathematics in 48 states/jurisdictions

Figure Change in percentages of eighth-grade public school students performing below NAEP Basic in mathematics between 2019 and 2022, by state/jurisdiction
Change in percentage of students performing below NAEP Basic between 2019 and 2022
0
states/jurisdictions had a lower percentage
5
states/jurisdictions had no significant change
48
states/jurisdictions had a higher percentage

Across all states/jurisdictions in 2022, the percentage of eighth-graders performing below NAEP Basic ranged from 18 to 94 percent; the percentage was 40 percent nationally for public school students. In the 48 states/jurisdictions with higher proportions of students performing below NAEP Basic compared to 2019, percentage increases ranged from 5 to 14 percentage points; nationally, there was an 8 percentage point increase for public school students.

Explore detailed state achievement-level results in the NAEP Mathematics Report Card

Eighth-grade mathematics scores declined in 22 of 26 participating urban districts; no significant score change in four districts

The Trial Urban District Assessment (TUDA) is intended to focus attention on urban education and measure educational progress within participating districts. Eighth-graders in 26 urban districts participated in the mathematics assessment in 2022. TUDA district results are compared to results of public school students in large cities with a population of 250,000 or more.

Figure Change in average scores between 2019 and 2022 for eighth-grade public school students in NAEP mathematics, by district/jurisdiction
Display As
Between
2019
and
2022:
0
decreased
0
no significant change
0
increased
AlbuquerqueAtlantaAustinBaltimore CityBostonCharlotte-MecklenburgChicagoClevelandDallasDetroitDistrict of Columbia (DCPS)Hillsborough County (FL)HoustonJefferson County (KY)Los AngelesMiami-DadeMilwaukeeNew York CityPhiladelphiaSan DiegoClark County (NV)DenverFort WorthGuilford County (NC)Shelby County (TN)Duval County (FL)
NOTE: DCPS = District of Columbia Public Schools.
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Similar to widespread score declines across the states/jurisdictions, eighth-grade mathematics scores declined since 2019 in 22 of 26 districts that participated in the 2022 NAEP Trial Urban District Assessment; score declines ranged from 4 to 14 points. The average score for large city schools declined 8 points compared to 2019. Among the districts with score declines, 11 scored lower than the average for large city schools in 2022; seven districts had average scores that were not significantly different from the large city average; and 4 scored higher.

Explore detailed district average score results in the NAEP Mathematics Report Card

Larger proportion of eighth-grade students performed below NAEP Basic in mathematics in 22 of 26 participating urban districts

Figure Change in percentages of eighth-grade public school students performing below NAEP Basic in mathematics between 2019 and 2022, by district/jurisdiction
Change in percentage of students performing below NAEP Basic between 2019 and 2022
0
districts had a lower percentage
4
districts had no significant change
22
districts had a higher percentage

Across all participating districts in 2022, the percentage of eighth-graders performing below NAEP Basic ranged from 36 to 80 percent; 47 percent of students in large city schools performed below the NAEP Basic level. In the 22 districts with larger proportions of students performing below NAEP Basic compared to 2019, percentage increases ranged from 5 to 19 percentage points; the increase for large city schools was 8 percentage points.

Thirteen of the 22 districts with score declines in 2022 had average scores that were within the NAEP Basic range. Nine districts scored below NAEP Basic; five of these districts had score declines that shifted the average scores from within the NAEP Basic range in 2019 to below the NAEP Basic level in 2022.

Explore detailed district achievement-level results in the NAEP Mathematics Report Card

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Grade 8Closer look at student performance

Mathematics scores decreased for lower-, middle-, and higher-performing eighth-graders

Figure Changes in eighth-grade NAEP mathematics scores at five selected percentiles: 2019 and 2022
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In 2022, eighth-grade mathematics scores declined across the performance distribution for the first time since the initial mathematics assessment in 1990. The magnitude of score declines for lower-performing students at the 10th and 25th percentiles (6 and 8 points, respectively) were not significantly different than the declines for higher-performing students at the 75th and 90th percentiles (9 and 8 points, respectively) with one exception; the score decline for students at the 75th percentile was higher than the decline for students at the 10th percentile.

Across the states/jurisdictions at grade 8, score declines since 2019 for higher-performing students (75th and 90th percentiles) were more prevalent than score declines for lower-performing students (10th and 25th percentiles) in 2022. Among the 51 states/jurisdictions with score declines, scores decreased for higher-performing students in 38 states/jurisdictions while scores decreased for lower-performing students in 24 states/jurisdictions.

Explore detailed percentile results in the NAEP Mathematics Report Card

Thirty-eight percent of eighth-grade students performed below NAEP Basic in mathematics; larger percentage compared to 2019

Figure Trend in eighth-grade NAEP mathematics achievement-level results
Display As
Baseline
Percent1009080706050403020100102030405060708090100YearBelowNAEP BasicNAEPBasicNAEPProficientNAEPAdvanced
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NOTE: NAEP achievement levels are to be used on a trial basis and should be interpreted and used with caution.

In 2022, the percentage of eighth-graders performing below the NAEP Basic level was larger by 7 percentage points compared to 2019. The percentage of students performing below NAEP Basic was larger than all previous assessments dating back to 2003. Twenty-six percent of eighth-graders performed at or above the NAEP Proficient level, which was 7 percentage points lower compared to 2019.

Seven percent of eighth-grade students performed at NAEP Advanced in 2022, which was 3 percentage points lower than in 2019. The percentage of eighth-graders performing at NAEP Advanced in 2022 was lower than all previous assessments dating back to 2009.

Explore detailed mathematics achievement-level results in the NAEP Mathematics Report Card

Mathematics scores at grade 8 declined across most racial/ethnic groups; scores declined for male and female students

Figure Changes in eighth-grade NAEP mathematics scores between 2019 and 2022, by selected racial/ethnic groups
Display As
Average Score75th and 25th
Percentiles
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Legend
75th percentile
25th percentile
*Significantly different (p < .05) from 2022.

In 2022, average eighth-grade mathematics scores decreased for most student groups in comparison to 2019. For example, looking at racial/ethnic groups, scores declined for Asian, Black, and Hispanic students, students of Two or More Races, and White students.

Performance at the lower (25th) and higher (75th) percentiles provides insight into the score declines for selected student groups. Compared to 2019, scores in 2022 declined at the higher percentile for Asian students and at the lower and higher percentiles for Black and Hispanic students, students of Two or More Races, and White students.

Figure Changes in eighth-grade NAEP mathematics scores between 2019 and 2022, by gender
Display As
Average Score75th and 25th
Percentiles
Loading...
Legend
75th percentile
25th percentile
*Significantly different (p < .05) from 2022.

Mathematics scores also declined for male and female eighth-graders. While there was no score gap between male and female eighth-graders in 2019, a greater score decline for female students in 2022 resulted in a score gap, with male students scoring higher than their female peers. In 2022, scores declined for both male and female eighth-graders performing at the 25th and 75th percentiles in comparison to 2019.

Explore detailed student group score and score gap results in the NAEP Mathematics Report Card

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Grades 4 & 8Deeper dive into disrupted learning

The selected NAEP grades 4 and 8 mathematics survey questionnaire results below describe learning disruptions and recovery efforts during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as learning contexts, opportunities, and student and educator perspectives. A special COVID-19 module was added to the 2022 NAEP grades 4 and 8 survey questionnaires to collect self-reported information about students’ learning during the pandemic.

Although comparisons in students’ performance shown below are made based on self-reported student and teacher characteristics and educational experiences, these results cannot be used to establish a cause-and-effect relationship between the characteristics or experiences and student achievement. NAEP is not designed to identify the causes of performance differences. There are many factors that may influence average student achievement, including local educational policies and practices, the quality of teachers, and available resources. Such factors may change over time and vary among student groups.

More frequent access to resources for higher performers learning remotely

Grade
Figure Percentage of fourth-grade students in NAEP mathematics who learned remotely during the last school year by selected percentiles and by various remote learning experiences: 2022
58% of students recalled experiencing remote learning last school year. What supports did those students have?
Proportion of lower-performing students (below 25th percentile)
Proportion of higher-performing students (at or above 75th percentile)
Had a desktop computer, laptop, or tablet all the time 50%*80%
Had a quiet place to work at least some of the time 70%*90%
Had their teacher available to help with schoolwork at least once or twice a week 38%*49%
*Significantly different (p < .05) from students performing at or above the 75th percentile.

All students who took the mathematics assessments in 2022 were asked if they ever attended school from home or somewhere else outside of school for any duration during the last school year (2020–21) because of the COVID-19 pandemic. Among fourth-grade students, 58 percent recalled learning remotely during the last school year, 20 percent reported they did not learn remotely, and 22 percent did not remember. Among eighth-grade students, 73 percent recalled learning remotely during the last school year, 18 percent reported they did not learn remotely, and 9 percent did not remember.

Of the fourth- and eighth-grade students who learned remotely during the 2020–21 school year, higher performers (those at or above the 75th percentile) had more frequent access to a desktop computer, laptop, or tablet all the time; a quiet place to work available at least some of the time; and a teacher available to help them with mathematics schoolwork about once or twice a week or more compared to lower performers (those below the 25th percentile). Additionally, higher-performing eighth-grade students reported more participation in real-time video lessons with their teacher every day or almost every day compared to their lower-performing peers.

Most students had teachers who were confident in doing remote instruction tasks; less than half had teachers who were confident in their ability to address pandemic-related learning gaps

Teachers of grades 4 and 8 students reported their confidence in teaching their students and addressing their students’ pandemic-related learning gaps in the current school year (2021–22). They also reported their confidence in performing four remote instruction tasks (creating materials to engage students, conducting a distance learning lesson in real-time, providing feedback to students, and helping students with difficulties in distance learning).

Grade
Figure Percentage of fourth-grade students in NAEP mathematics whose teachers reported how confident they are in performing several tasks related to remote instruction: 2022
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Over 80 percent of students at each grade had teachers who were quite or extremely confident in teaching their students this school year. However, fewer than half of students at each grade had teachers who were quite or extremely confident in their ability to address learning gaps that may have occurred due to pandemic-related school closures. For each of the four remote instruction tasks, over 80 percent of students at grades 4 and 8 had teachers who reported they probably or definitely can perform them.

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Grades 4 & 8Explore students' content area performance

The NAEP mathematics assessment measures students' knowledge and skills in five broad content areas of mathematics (Number properties and operations; Measurement; Geometry; Data analysis, statistics, and probability; and Algebra) and their ability to apply their content area knowledge to problem-solving situations. Learn more about the mathematics assessment.

In 2022, average scores decreased in all five content areas at both grades 4 and 8 compared to 2019. Among the states/jurisdictions and participating urban districts with overall average score declines in 2022, there were widespread content area score declines at both grades. For example, at grade 4, scores were lower in all five content areas in 26 of the 42 states/jurisdictions with score declines; at grade 8, scores were lower in all five content areas in 37 of 50 states/jurisdictions with score declines compared to 2019.

To better understand students’ mathematics knowledge and skills across the mathematics content areas, explore student performance on samples of publicly released mathematics test questions from the 2022 mathematics assessments at grades 4 and 8. You can also try sample grade 4 and grade 8 test questions to experience the assessment as students did.

Figure Change in average scores between 2019 and 2022 for fourth- and eighth-grade students in NAEP mathematics, by mathematics content area
Grade 4
Content area2022 score2019 scoreChange
Number properties and operations2392435
Measurement2352395
Geometry2302344
Data analysis, statistics, and probability2332374
Algebra2392434
Grade 8
Content area2022 score2019 scoreChange
Number properties and operations2712797
Measurement2722809
Geometry2732786
Data analysis, statistics, and probability26927910
Algebra2812898
Score decrease in 2022
Figure Change in average scores between 2019 and 2022 for fourth- and eighth-grade public school students in NAEP mathematics, by mathematics content area and by state/jurisdiction and participating district
Content areaNumber of states/jurisdictions with score declines from 2019 to 2022
Grade 4
(Among those 42 states/jurisdictions with overall score declines)
Grade 8
(Among those 50 states/jurisdictions with overall score declines)
Number properties and operations3747
Measurement3446
Geometry4042
Data analysis, statistics, and probability3550
Algebra3149
Content areaNumber of districts with score declines from 2019 to 2022
Grade 4
(Among those 23 districts with overall score declines)
Grade 8
(Among those 22 districts with overall score declines)
Number properties and operations2114
Measurement1610
Geometry149
Data analysis, statistics, and probability1312
Algebra1616
NOTE: The mathematics content area results are not available for Puerto Rico. Therefore, Puerto Rico is not included in the state counts in the table.
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Grades 4 & 8About the mathematics assessment

Learn more about the NAEP mathematics assessment