Student Group Scores
Student Group Score Results
Score gains for racial/ethnic and gender groups compared to the 1970s
The 2022 average reading scores for Black and White 9-year-old students were higher than 1971, the first LTT reading assessment year. The 2022 average reading score for Hispanic 9-year-old students was higher than in 1975, the first year that results were reported for this student group. Also, the average reading scores for male and female 9-year-old students were higher in 2022 than in 1971. Compared to 2020, however, scores for these groups, as well as most reported student groups, were lower.
The long-term trend assessments are administered to samples of students defined by age rather than by grade. Nine-year-olds are typically in fourth grade. Some students in the age group, however, are in a grade that is below or above the grade that is typical for their age. (For more information, see the About page.) The average reading scores for 9-year-old students in a grade below fourth and for students in the fourth grade were higher in 2022 than in 1971; however, in comparison to 2020 scores were lower for these student groups. Results are not shown for 9-year-olds in fifth grade or above because reporting standards were not met for most assessment years.
See long-term trend results for more student groups on the NAEP Data Explorer.
Percentile Scores by Student Groups
Scores higher at the 25th and 75th percentiles for Black, Hispanic, and White students compared to the early 1970s
The 2022 reading scores at the 25th and 75th percentiles for 9-year-old Black and White students were higher compared to 1971 scores. The scores for 9-year-old Hispanic students were also higher at these selected percentiles compared to 1975, the first year results were available for this student group. Reading scores at these selected percentiles were also higher in 2022 than in 1971 for 9-year-old male students, and for students below and at the grade typical for their age (fourth grade).
In comparison to 2020, scores at the 25th and 75th percentiles for 9-year-old Hispanic, White, and female students and students at the grade typical for their age (fourth grade) were lower in 2022.
Demographic changes in student populations
The demographic makeup of the United States' student population has changed over the more than half-century since the long-term trend reading assessment was first administered. At age 9, the proportion of Hispanic students increased from 5 percent in 1975 to 28 percent in 2022, while the proportion of White students decreased from 80 percent to 47 percent over the same time period. Another notable change is that a higher percentage of 9-year-old students are now in a grade lower than the one typical for their age: 24 percent of 9-year-olds were in a grade lower than fourth grade in 1971, whereas 39 percent of 9-year-old students were below their typical grade in 2022. The proportion of 9-year-olds at grade 4 has decreased from 75 percent to 61 percent over the same time period.
Select a student group from the drop-down menu to view changes in the percentage distribution for that group over time.