Student Group Scores
Student Group Score Results
Score gains for racial/ethnic and gender groups compared to 1978
The 2022 average mathematics scores for Black, Hispanic, and White 9-year-old students were higher than in 1978, with each of these groups making similar gains of 19 or 20 score points. Both male and female 9-year-old students also had a higher average mathematics score in 2022 than in 1978, with males increasing by 19 points, and females by 12. Compared to 2020, however, the average scores for Black, Hispanic, and White students, for male and female students, as well as for many other student groups, were lower in 2022.
The long-term trend assessments are administered to samples of students defined by age rather than by grade. Nine-year-olds are typically in fourth grade. Some students in the age group, however, are in a grade below or above the grade that is typical for their age. (For more information, see the About page.) The average mathematics score was higher in 2022 than in 1978 for 9-year-olds in a grade below fourth grade and 9-year-olds in fourth grade. Compared to 2020, however, scores were lower both for 9-year-olds in a grade below fourth grade and for students in fourth grade. Results are not shown for 9-year-olds in fifth grade or above because reporting standards were not met for most assessment years.
See long-term trend results for more student groups on the NAEP Data Explorer.
Percentile Scores by Student Groups
Scores higher at the 25th and 75th percentiles for Black, Hispanic, and White students compared to 1978
The 2022 mathematics scores at the 25th and 75th percentiles for 9-year-old Black, Hispanic, and White students were higher compared to 1978 scores. Mathematics scores at these selected percentiles were also higher in 2022 than in 1978 for 9-year-old male and female students, and for students below and at the grade typical for their age (fourth grade).
In comparison to 2020, scores at the 25th and 75th percentiles were lower in 2022 for 9-year-old Black, Hispanic, and White students, male and female students, and students at the grade typical for their age (fourth grade).
Demographic changes in student populations
The demographic makeup of the United States' student population has changed compared to 1978. The proportion of Hispanic 9-year-old students increased from 5 percent in 1978 to 29 percent in 2022, while the proportion of White 9-year-old students decreased from 79 percent to 46 percent over the same time period. Another notable change is that a higher percentage of 9-year-olds are now in a grade lower than the one typical for their age: 26 percent of 9-year-olds were in a grade lower than fourth grade in 1978, whereas 38 percent of 9-year-old students were in a grade below fourth in 2022. The proportion of 9-year-olds at grade 4 has decreased from 73 percent to 61 percent over the same time period. In comparison to 2020, there was no statistically significant change in either the percentage of 9-year-olds in a grade below fourth grade or in the percentage of 9-year-olds attending fourth grade.
Select a student group from the drop-down menu to view changes in the percentage distribution for that group over time.