> Score was higher or gap was wider than selected jurisdiction
< Score was lower or gap was narrower than selected jurisdiction
X Not significantly different from selected jurisdiction
The order of jurisdictions is based on numeric precision (up to eight decimal places) rather than the displayed precision and does not take statistical significance into consideration. To see whether there is a significant difference between jurisdictions, consult the column "Cross-jurisdiction significant difference."
A negative number in the average score gap column indicates that the latter group in the comparison is higher than the group that it is compared to.
When scores for a single student group (e.g., all students) are compared, the significant differences are displayed using adjustments for multiple comparisons. When gaps are compared, the significant differences displayed are based on single pairwise tests of statistical significance.
For complete data, visit the NAEP Data Explorer. See scale score results for all students, by race/ethnicity, and family income.
When comparing the results for urban districts to results for the nation and large cities, it is important to consider how the demographics of the jurisdictions are different. For example, large cities and participating urban districts differ from the nation in the proportion of students eligible for the National School Lunch Program (an indicator of lower family income). While the percentages of students from lower-income families eligible for free/reduced-price school lunch in the nation in 2011 were 52 percent at grade 4 and 48 percent at grade 8, the percentages of lower-income students in the districts ranged from 51 to 100 percent.